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Session Schedule & Abstracts




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Saturday 2nd July, 2016

DCT4
Symposium: Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) and related imaging techniques for evolutionary morphology 4

Room: Salon A   4:30 pm–5:00 pm

Moderator(s): P. M. Gignac, A. N. Herdina, N. J. Kley, A. Morhardt, J. A. Clarke, & M. Colbert
DCT4-1  4:30 pm  An evaluation of the efficacy and mechanism of contrast-enhanced X-ray Computed Tomography for avian cranial material utilizing iodine through experimental and simulation approaches. Li Z*, The University of Texas at Austin; Clarke JA, The University of Texas at Austin; Ketcham RA, University of Texas at Austin; Colbert MW, The University of Texas at Austin; Yan F, Rice University   lizhiheng1982@hotmail.com
Abstract: Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced X-ray computed tomography (diceCT) is a comparatively new tool kit for imaging fine scale 3-D phenotypes. Although it is rapidly becoming standard anatomical practice, relatively few studies have attempted to gain insights into staining mechanisms by looking at subtle differences in staining protocol or model tissue interactions. There also has been only limited data available to inform detailed protocols for optimizing staining duration and concentration of solution when staining large adult specimens. A low concentration of iodine-based buffered formalin solution with a long staining period was used to visualize soft-tissue structures in avian crania. The staining effect was analyzed by serially measuring micro-CT-number profiles across coronal sections at intervals spanning the staining period. Regular replacement of the staining solution combined with a longer staining period significantly improved contrast within tissues. A simplified one-dimensional Diffusion-Sorption model with multiple-tissue domains was used to simulate transport process by calculating the concentration profile of iodine across the cranial regions. This model fits well with our experiment data and better explains previously reported difficulties in staining large samples comprised of tissues with high partition coefficients. Differences in partition coefficient, bulk density, and porosity could further explain the observed variation in staining rate and maximal staining effect between different tissues. By adjusting the parameters obtained in our experiments and simulations, it will be possible to calculate the optimal staining duration using a similar solution for different sized specimens. Additional follow-on experiments further support tailoring the staining solution concentration and staining regime by specimen type (e.g., whole body, single tissue) based on Diffusion-Reaction modeling.

DCT4-2  4:45 pm  Microscopic anatomy of the animals—a project in integrative publishing. Starck JM*, University of Munich (LMU); Haug J, University of Munich (LMU)   Starck@lmu.de
Abstract: This talk introduces the Microscopic Anatomy of the Animals (MAA) as a project in integrative publishing. The project builds-up on the background that structures carry functions and knowledge of the structures is the fundament for functional studies, be it physiological, biochemical or molecular. New methods (e.g., confocal laser scanning, correlative microscopy, µCT-imaging), new data, and new approaches spawned modern concepts of organismal morphology. The dynamic interaction of structures, their functions and the environment have now moved into the center of knowledge making morphology a truly integrative field in biology. With the widely accessible imaging tools, large data set become available that invite data-miners to fully utilize the available information. However, all this exciting new information is scattered in the major journals of cell biology and morphology, or some public data depositories, but it has never been integrated properly. MAA proposes a comprehensive and concise database of microscopic anatomy of the animals as the main access portal to microscopic anatomy, histology, and cell biology of animals. The database is built upon correlative imaging, i.e., image information always refers to all levels of the animal, from the general Bauplan through organs, tissues and cells. The intensive crosslinking of data facilitates comparative searches and data mining, so that morphological information, even from enigmatic species, becomes accessible also to scientists in other fields of biology than morphology. It includes all available technical features of digital publishing like interactive graphics, 3D-images, and virtual microscopy. It is addressed to the broad community of biologists, biochemists, molecular biologists, veterinarians, students and teachers.



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